What types of radiators are better: an overview of all types of radiators
The duration of the heating season in our latitudes is close to 2/3 years. The indicator depends on the region, but on average it is about 250 days. All questions concerning the efficiency of the heating system are extremely important for us, which largely depends on the correct choice of its devices.
Let us consider which heating radiators are better, how to choose, what to look for.
Characteristics of a heating radiator
Regardless of the complexity of the heating system, the main task is to maintain the desired temperature in the house or apartment. The heating radiator plays a key role in this, carrying out heat exchange between the air in the room and the coolant.
Uniform heating, effective heat dissipation, microclimate maintenance, stable operation are the main requirements for the radiator.
The main parameters affecting the choice of a particular model:
- System operating pressureIt depends on whether the device is included in the autonomous or centralized network. It is arranged by gravity or coercive principle. On the average varies from 3 to 10 bar or in a similar range of atmospheres.
- Thermal power.The characteristic required to calculate the heating capacity required for heating the room. It is also needed for the selection of individual components of sectional batteries. For processing of 10 m², 1kW is required.
- Modularity.The quality inherent in prefabricated radiators, which makes it possible to assemble and disassemble the device for individual requirements.
- The reaction rate at tº.More precisely, the ability to respond to changes in the temperature of the coolant. period of time for cooling and warming up.
- Ability to equip the automation.Devices that monitor weather conditions and independently eliminate air traffic jams.
The devices presented now for sale provide free circulation of the coolant and air through the system. Differ in corrosion resistance and attractive appearance.
Thermal efficiency of the radiator depends on the surface area of the energy dissipation. Flat metal convector has a much smaller area, compared with aluminum sectional, of the same geometric size. Since the latter radiates heat throughout the area of the ribs.
How to correctly pick up the device?
In Soviet times, the question of which radiator is best to choose was never asked for a simple reason. The industry produced only two of them - steel and cast iron. We live in a happy time of diversity, technological and environmental excellence.
The world and domestic industry offer a choice of a wide enough range. There are several signs by which it is advisable to separate the radiators.
Principles of radiator classification
Radiators can be divided by production materials:
- steel panel convectors;
- cast iron batteries;
- aluminum radiators;
- bimetallic radiators.
By design features:
Each of these types is best suited for its operating conditions, and therefore has its own nuances.A separate type of radiator heating - highly specialized. These are devices designed to solve one problem, often to the detriment of the overall functionality.
The specialized types are floor convectors, recently, more and more are gaining popularity. Mounted in the floor, used with a large glass area. They have a very limited efficiency due to not large sizes in height. They allow not only to heat the room, but also to form a heat curtain against drafts and do not allow windows to fog.
There are baseboard convectors, which are mounted in long metal boxes installed instead of baseboards. All linings and adjustments are also closed with a plinth. Convenient because they do not violate the overall design of the room.
Designer radiators come in all sizes and configurations.They are made of various materials: cast iron, steel, aluminum. The main drawback is the high price.
For bathrooms and showers, special radiators of simple construction, but protected from high humidity, are used. Made of stainless steel or chrome-plated steel.
Information about the schemes of heating systems
The heating scheme largely depends on which radiators are better suited in each particular case.
The one-pipe heating scheme involves the supply and removal of coolant to the radiator through a single pipe. With such a system, each battery is connected in series, along a chain, to a common riser. It is used less and less often, because it has a number of drawbacks: the complexity of setting up the system, since changes in one radiator affect all others, the presence of a common large-diameter tower.
When the two-pipe heating scheme, radiators are connected in parallel: one pipe provides the coolant, the second - drain. This system requires much more pipeline, but does not have the disadvantages of a single pipe system. Adjustment of one radiator, practically does not affect the others.
There are open systems and closed. With an open system, at the highest point there is an expansion tank that communicates directly with atmospheric air. Circulation in such a system is carried out in a natural way, due to the slope of the pipelines and the difference in pressure of the hot and cold coolant.
The closed system has a special, expansion tank with a diaphragm. Coolant does not come into contact with atmospheric air. In such a system, forced circulation, which is much more reliable, and does not require slopes. Most modern systems are closed.
With an open heating system, the excess pressure pushes the coolant into the expansion tank, directly connected to the atmosphere. In such a coolant a large percentage of oxygen is corrosive.
With a two-pipe system, the radiators are connected in parallel, and the coolant has no contact with atmospheric air.
Specificity of central heating
With central heating, the coolant is under high pressure. Circulation may not be constant. Therefore, it is desirable to use radiators with high inertial properties. Able during intensive circulation, store heat, preventing overheating of the room. Conversely, it does not cool so quickly when circulation stops.
The higher the inertia of the radiator, the smoother the temperature will remain in the room. With central heating, the usual coolant acts as a heat carrier. However, due to the lengthy and complex system, it sometimes has a strong pollution and gas contamination.As a result, the coolant causes increased corrosion. The sediment accompanying it will clog the narrow radiator channels, significantly reducing the effective heat transfer.
Features of autonomous heating
The basis of an individual heating system is most often gas boilers or similar equipment operating on liquid fuel or pallets. Especially effective when a two-pipe system. Such a system is closed, the circulation of the coolant is constant and is carried out using a circulation pump. Boiler equipment turns on automatically, depending on the temperature of the coolant.
With proper setup, it allows you to achieve very effective work. Using low inertia radiators and a system of combs, actually delivers the coolant, only to the desired radiator of heating. This happens due to constant circulation.
In such a radiator, the flow occurs the faster, the lower the temperature of the coolant.Hot coolant will go immediately to the coldest radiator, due to the highest pressure difference.
Since the automation of heating equipment constantly maintains the specified temperature of the coolant: the lower the inertia of the radiator, the more accurately the room temperature will be maintained. It is characterized by high quality coolant and lack of gas pollution, low pressure.
Individual solid fuel heating is based on manually loaded boilers. In particular, this leads to significant changes in the temperature of the coolant during the day. To reduce the cost of the entire system, very often, an open-type one-pipe system is used (communicating with atmospheric air).
With a single-pipe self-flowing design, the pressure in the system is minimal, the coolant is contaminated with corrosion products and gassed. The use of radiators with high inertia and resistant to corrosion is desirable.
Individual heating of the cottage, hunting lodge is characterized by the possibility of reducing the temperature of the coolant to negative temperatures. Special antifreeze is used as a coolant, among other advantages, has anti-corrosion properties. The system is characterized by low pressure.For quick heating of all rooms, the use of radiators with minimal inertia will be a reasonable choice.
Steel Panel Convectors
Steel radiator has a solid monolithic structure. Heat exchange plates are placed in the casing
The design of the steel convector consists of steel tubes and plates. To give an aesthetic look, everything is placed in a steel casing. Due to the flat and smooth surface of the casing, less dust settles on it and it is easier to take care of the device.
Steel convectors are popular due to low prices. They are lightweight and do not require reinforced brackets for installation. Design features provide active circulation of air masses. The outer casing is not very warm, it is difficult to burn.
They come from the manufacturer in the finished form and do not provide for changes. Due to the non-separable design guarantee no leakage. Have an average inertia. Steel convectors are suitable for all types of heating schemes.
Among the shortcomings of steel devices:
- Low corrosion resistance. In manufacturing, a corrosion sensitive material is used.
- Cool down quickly. In case of emergency shutdown of the system, the device will almost instantly lose the working temperature.
- Low heat emission. Associated with a small total radiation area.
- Limited service life, especially if the coolant is of poor quality.
Water hammer - occurs when two streams meet: liquid and air not removed from the system. The liquid is incompressible, the excess pressure at the meeting point of the flows is transmitted to the pipe walls. Especially dangerous for multi-storey buildings.
Characteristics of cast iron batteries
Traditional cast iron radiators have a cumbersome and simple look.
The modern design of cast iron batteries, may well compete with advanced models. Pleased with a simple and smooth surface, which is not difficult to clean. Structurally made of individual edges, which can be assembled individually,directly at the facility. A separate section has high power. Due to the thick cast iron have a large weight and high inertia.
Cast iron radiators heat up for a long time and cool down for a long time. Massive devices have the longest service life, attract an affordable price. Practically not sensitive to the quality of the coolant.
Cast iron batteries are used mainly in facilities with centralized heating. They are suitable for autonomous systems with natural circulation of the coolant. In other schemes, individual heating is not recommended.
It is all about inertness of pig-iron devices which slowly react to changes of a temperature background. In houses with climate control, they are not compatible: both that and another will function separately. In addition, most models do not have automatics.
The disadvantages include:
- Impressive weight. Installation requires the use of reinforced brackets.
- Restrictions on the application.Installation in most autonomous systems is not practical.
- Slow heating.It takes considerable time to heat the device and the medium to be treated - the inertia of such radiators is very high.
- Sensitivity to water hammer.Before buying, you need to look at how much pressure the device can withstand from brittle cast iron, and consider what the probability of a hydraulic shock in the system.
- Small heat transfer area. The uncomplicated design of the ribs cannot provide good air convection.
Capacity of cast iron sections from 2.5 to 3 liters. They work quietly under pressure of 6 bar. There are cast-iron models, designed for installation in systems with a pressure of 9 bar, briefly withstand increases up to 16 bar.
Inertia is the rate at which heat is transferred from the radiator to the surrounding air. The greater the inertness, the longer the radiator takes time to heat and cool. For example, imagine a brick oven. It remains hot, even after the fire has gone out, but it takes a long time to heat.
Overview of aluminum radiators
Aluminum radiators attract an interesting design. The complex profile of the panel provides high heat dissipation efficiency, which indicates high performance with small dimensions.However, cleaning of such radiators is difficult because of the developed and ornate surface sections.
Aluminum batteries are divided into sectional collapsible and solid. Calculated on the average pressure of the coolant. The power of a single rib is less than that of cast iron. They have low inertial properties: they heat up rather quickly and cool. Aluminum radiators are great for individual autonomous heating.
The scope of application of such radiators is limited due to the inherent shortcomings of aluminum:
- Sensitive to the quality of the coolant.The small weight and dimensions of devices allow to reduce diameter of pipelines. Narrow pipes can quickly become clogged with scale and sand.
- Relatively high price. The cost of aluminum devices makes you want more manifestation of humanity on the part of manufacturers.
- Low resistance to water hammer.Aluminum is essentially a plastic material that cannot resist high mechanical and hydraulic pressure.
The best representatives of the "aluminum" recognized products from AI-Si, capable of working in systems with a pressure of 6 bar. volume of sections 0.5 l. Persistently recommended for installation in private homes, especially with climate systems.
Aluminum is a chemically active element. Easily reacts with alkaline additives, often used in the coolant, with central heating. Does not allow the use of copper fittings.
Analysis of bimetallic radiators
Bimetallic radiators are a variant of modernized aluminum counterparts, reinforced with steel elements to increase pressure resistance. In bimetallic models of steel, only channels that incorporate radiator headers or the entire internal component can be made - i.e. and channels, and collectors.
In the latter case, the contact of aluminum with the coolant is entirely excluded. That extends the life of the system and reduces the frequency of system maintenance. The union of two metals is characterized by good convection, suitable for installation in private and individual housing.
In the list of deficiencies are listed:
- High price.Devices are not too happy with affordable price.
- Complex composite surface.They are not easy to clean and you need to constantly monitor that dusty deposits do not accumulate on the surface.
The volume of sections depends on the manufacturer, is in the range of approximately from 0.17 to 0.3 liters. Maintain a pressure of 16 - 40 bar. Depending on the model, they can briefly resist a pressure of 24 to 60 bar.
* Bimetallic - this is not an alloy, namely the conjugation of two metals. Therefore, the energy of the coolant is transferred, first to the steel pipe, then to the aluminum or copper heat exchanger.
A few installation tips
The effective, reliable operation of the heating system is influenced not only by the correct choice of the type of heating radiator. There are a few simple installation rules:
- The distance to the wall, not less than 4 cm.
- The distance to the floor and windowsill - not less than 10 cm.
- Size not more than 75% of the width of the opening being installed.
Distances affect the proper distribution of air flow, ensuring uniform and rapid heating of the room.In addition, distances are important for fire safety if the floor consists of combustible materials (parquet, boards, linoleum).
The use of decorative screen will reduce the effectiveness of up to 15-20%. Incorrect connection to the supply and return pipes will reduce the performance by up to 20%. The most effective solution is to connect the supply pipe to the top of the radiator, and the outlet to the bottom of the radiator.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Useful tips from experts will help you figure out how to choose a heating appliance:
The best choice of a radiator of heating can be considered the one at which the greatest comfort and coziness is achieved. The radiator may be invisible, or vice versa - to be part of the overall design. But most importantly - reliability and no hassle.