Vatican: Form of Government and Government
The Vatican is an independent power unit,which is the smallest state-city in the world. And it does not matter that there is a country on the territory of the Italian capital. How did it come about? What form of government does the Vatican have?
History of the Vatican
In the VIII century, the ruling Frankish King Pepinpresented as a gift to the Pope part of the Roman lands. Subsequently, in 1870, the Italian troops occupied Rome, depriving the pontiff of power. The opposition of the government and the Holy See lasted almost 60 years. Finally, it ended with the signing of the Lateran Agreement. It gave the Vatican sovereignty and annual monetary compensation from Italy.
Sights of the Vatican
The main attraction, forcingCome here a lot of tourists, of course, is St. Peter's Cathedral. This is a unique place. The construction and decoration involved the greatest architects and artists, for example Bernini and Michelangelo.
To one of the mysterious sightsThe Vatican can be attributed to the Apostolic Library. It is considered open, but access to its funds is so limited that it takes more than a century to uncover all the secrets. Here are the answers to many historical questions. For example, the manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci, which are stored here, can cast a shadow on the prestige of the church. According to rumors, in the cellars of the library there is a copy of the work of the famous mystic Cagliostro, with the help of which one can find youth.
Territory of the state
The Vatican territory occupies only 44 hectares. But, despite the size, there is a postal service, a radio station, a railway and armed forces. Becoming a citizen of this country is not so simple. Citizenship is not inherited, but is issued on the basis of service to the Holy See. Life here is relatively calm. But since the state is too small, the number of crimes, according to statistics, is several times greater than in Italy.
Vatican City: Interesting Facts
The state has its own attributes of power: flag and anthem. The banner consists of a yellow and white strip, it shows the coat of arms of the Vatican. The national anthem is divided into two parts. The first is sung in Latin, and the second is in Italian. In addition to the police, there is a special Swiss Guards. It exists for the protection of the pontiff since 1506. It is worth noting several interesting facts about this service:
- The costumes of the guardsmen were made according to Raphael's sketches. The head dress is a black beret, in which the artist loved to portray himself.
- Young people from 18 to 25 years are selected for service. They must necessarily be Catholic and have Swiss citizenship.
- Guardsmen do not have the right to wear a beard or mustache. And they can marry by special permission.
- Service lasts 2 years, but can be extended to 25 years.
- The claim is not taxed. Free housing and a subsequent pension are provided.
- The Swiss Guard does not participate in wars. An exception is the salvation of Pope Clement VII in 1527, where 147 guardsmen were killed.
Vatican: form of government
As for the sovereign device, in thisthere is some legal conflict. It is considered that the form of government of the Vatican state is an absolute theocratic monarchy. Its distinctive features are the following characteristics:
- Concentration of all branches of power in one hand.
- Power is inherited.
- The monarch does not bear responsibility as such.
- The term of the monarch election is unlimited.
So what form of government is in the Vatican? It is known that he has his own Constitution, consisting of six acts. In the Basic Law there is no mention that the Pope is a monarch. Article 1 states that he is the Lord of the Vatican City State and the Supreme Pontiff. In his hands are concentrated all three branch. However, the legislative powers are delegated to the Pontifical Commission, whose composition is formed by the Bishop for 5 years. Its chairman exercises executive power in the state.
In certain cases, the Secretary Generalcan also exercise executive power. The judicial branch is completely in the hands of the Pope, on whose behalf the respective bodies are created. It is they who make a decision on behalf of the Lord, who has the right to amnesty, forgive, pardon or be released from punishment.
What else is remarkable about the Vatican? The form of government could create a precedent in jurisprudence, if not for the fact that the Pope independently appoints persons to whom it delegates its own powers. Thus, this fully corresponds to the definition of the monarchy as a whole. As for inheritance of power, the Constitution does not regulate the election of a monarch. This lies in the field of canon law, which occupies a primary place in the hierarchy of legal sources of the Vatican City State. The form of government, as we see, is justified not only by the Constitutional Acts.
The Conclave (College of Cardinals) secretly electschapter, which is an unconventional method for the monarchy. Often this also provides food for arguments. This method of election is connected with historical premises - Pope Gregory VII abolished the institution of inheritance, which is connected with the unwillingness of the church to lose wealth. On the other hand, the connection with the woman was always considered sinful, so the transfer of power by inheritance became impossible for the pontiff.
Vatican: Form of Government and Government
This small state is governed by the HolyThe throne is the absolute monarchy. The Pope is the sovereign of the state and is elected by the cardinals for a lifetime. The head of the executive power is the state secretary, the administrative one is the governor appointed by the Pontifical Commission. Legally, the Vatican has the status of a sovereign territory of the Holy See. The main administrative body is the Roman Curia.
Independent and having its own viewsthe state-city is the Vatican. The form of government is one of the oldest in the world. Let it not be industrial and does not have its own agriculture, but for moral and political development it plays an important role.