Theory of cognition and basic approaches to cognition
The theory of knowledge is the teaching of the processthe accumulation of new knowledge and how humanity comprehends the world around us and the cause-effect relationships that operate in it. No one doubts that from generation to generation we pass on to our descendants an ever greater body of knowledge. Old truths are supplemented by new discoveries in various fields: science, art, in the field of everyday life. Thus, knowledge is a mechanism of social communication and continuity.
But, on the other hand, many concepts,expressed by authoritative scientists and seemed indisputable, after some time showed their inconsistency. Let us recall at least the geocentric system of the universe, which was refuted by Copernicus. In this connection, a natural question arises: but can we be completely sure that our knowledge of being is true? The theory of knowledge tries to answer this question. Philosophy (or rather, its section studying this issue, epistemology) examines the processes occurring when comprehending the macrocosm and the microcosm.
This science develops in the same way as otherindustry, comes into contact with them, takes something from them and, in turn, gives. The theory of knowledge poses a rather difficult, almost insoluble task: to understand the human brain exactly how it operates. This occupation is somewhat reminiscent of the story of Baron Mnnhausen, and it can be compared to the famous attempt to "raise himself by the hair." Therefore, the question of whether we know anything about the world is immutable, as always, there are three answers: optimistic, pessimistic and rational.
The theory of knowledge inevitably encountersthe problem of the theoretical possibility to know the absolute truth, and therefore should reflect on the criteria for identifying this category. Does it exist at all, or are all our ideas about it highly relative, variable, incomplete? Optimists are confident that our knowledge does not fail us. Hegel, the most vivid representative of this trend in epistemology, maintained that being inevitably revealed before us, to show us our wealth and to give them pleasure. And the progress of science is a clear testimony.
This view is opposed by agnostics. They deny the possibility of the knowability of being, arguing that we comprehend the surrounding world with our sensations. Thus, cognitive conclusions about something are just conjectures. And what is the true state of affairs - the theory of knowledge does not know, because we are all hostages of our sense organs, and objects and phenomena are revealed to us only in the form in which their images are refracted in the prism of our perception of reality. The concept of agnosticism is most fully expressed in epistemological relativism-the doctrine of the absolute variability of events, phenomena, and facts.
The theory of knowledge of skepticism goes back toancient wisdom. Aristotle expressed the idea that one who wants to clearly know, must strongly doubt. This current does not deny the possibility of comprehending the world in principle, like agnosticism, but calls not to be so gullible about the knowledge, dogmas and seemingly undeniable facts that we already have. By methods of "verification" or "falsification" it is possible to separate the grain from the chaff and eventually, to know the truth.