The zone of actual development is ... The area of actual development according to Vygotsky
In families where small children grow up, parents somehow ask questions of upbringing and education. Kids attend kindergarten and in the collective they get the necessary knowledge and skills. The necessary skills are formed in them through the systematic and purposeful work of educators. A zone of actual development is an important and necessary element for any person. This article is devoted to the question of the essence of the phenomenon introduced by the Soviet scientist. Vygotsky LS was the first to consider the development of the child from two sides. His theory is still relevant today.
A zone of actual development is a complex of skills that the child owns at the present time. What does it mean? Let's admit, the kid goes to the younger group, studies the colors and shapes of objects. Those tasks that he can perform independently, without the help of a teacher, can be called his "reserve". The concept of "zone of actual development" was formed from the idea of what a child should know at a certain stage, what skills he usually already possesses at this point in time.
The concept of LS Vygotsky
According to the Soviet scientist, who conducted research in the early twentieth century, the formation of knowledge in a small man consists of two components: the zone of actual and immediate development. These terms are involved in the formation of a successful personality. The zone of the nearest and actual development is not the same. They differ from each other in a cardinal way. One concept is aimed at the future, the other is responsible for the present moment, affects what is happening now.
The area of actual development of Vygotsky is a set of knowledge, skills and skills of the child, which he owns at a high level at this time. According to the scientist, the learning process should be based on the fact that a little ahead of development. It is not necessary to give assignments to which the kid is not yet ready, as it should not and "stamp on the spot", doing the same thing. The submission of material should be carried out according to how much the child has matured to him mentally, but always to be a discovery for him.
How are skills formed?
The area of actual development of the child is a storehouse of new opportunities. The more knowledge a person possesses, the larger the scale of the awaits await him ahead. New skills are formed by building additional links and ideas about objects and phenomena on the basis of existing knowledge about the world around us.
A person is always comfortable under the previous conditions. And if the child is not specifically engaged, he will be at the same level for a long time. The transition to another stage is associated with the need to clarify for themselves significant details or solve a problem that previously was beyond his power. To make knowledge of his, he needs to be translated from the category of "just information" into a group of individual skills. An important role is played by emotions and feelings. It is noted that memorization is much more effective on interest.
How to build classes?
In order for them to bring the maximum benefit, the development of the child must move systematically. Classes must necessarily be related to one another, otherwise the effectiveness will not be high. For example, if in the first lesson the children learn the letter "A", then on the next it is advisable to repeat a little and go on, and not to dedicate it all the time, otherwise there will be no incentive to learn new things. The zone of the nearest and actual development is different concepts. But they must always be in a harmonious relationship to each other. Since new knowledge is often a complement and an extension of the former, the repetition of what has already been learned deepens the notion of the subject, forms a more holistic view of these or other concepts.
Classes should be designed in such a way as to help the child form and accumulate knowledge about himself and the world around him with the maximum benefit for himself. The Vygotsky actual development zone means focusing on the already existing achievements in order to help the formation of new skills.
It perfectly develops the fine motor skills of the fingers and promotes the activation of mental activity. You can sculpt anything, but it is better to give the task to form from plasticine a child familiar to the child or the one who "passed" in the classroom in kindergarten. For example, if the last topic studied was domestic animals, you can ask the kids to fashion those representatives that they liked best.
If you give a specific task to blind a horse or a dog, in this case the child will be limited in the choice and his own imagination. A zone of actual development is always a purposeful movement forward with the support of existing knowledge.
Probably, it is not necessary to talk about the benefits of physical education. They can be conducted both in the gymnasium and in the open air. Physical exercises develop the muscles, strengthen immunity and health in general. Swimming is an excellent hardening agent and contributes to the formation of a positive outlook on life.
If the child does not know how to swim, the first lesson should begin with helping him get used to the water, wander a little around the pool or a pond. Never need to hurry and make sudden movements. In the process of forming the skills necessary for navigation, these representations need to be strengthened and expanded.
Benefit from reading
Nothing is more conducive to the development of a child than a book. Reading strengthens the trust between the parent and the child, promotes the development of all cognitive processes and especially speech. When the baby begins to fold letters into syllables, and then into words, there is a powerful activation of brain activity, which causes the formation of further successes.
It is known that not all children are easily given the process of teaching reading. This is a time-consuming task, which requires considerable strong-willed efforts. The alphabet must be studied in such a way that the transition from one letter to another is not carried out consistently (for example, from "A" to "B", "B"), but smoothly. This means that at first you can study all the vowels, let the child feel their vocality, and then proceed to the consonants. To fold syllables is best to start at a time when the baby is already well oriented in letters, practically does not confuse them with each other, while the knowledge of vowels is decisive.
Thus, the zone of actual development is a large-scale segment of the formation of the personality, to which it is necessary to approach more than responsibly. The child's knowledge of the world can be used in a constructive way for him, if he knows how to expand these boundaries.