The centrifugal force: what is it and how does it work?
As is known, to any physical body is characteristicto maintain its state of rest or uniform rectilinear motion until it is subjected to any external influence. The centrifugal force is nothing more than the manifestation of this universal law of inertia. In our life it is found so often that we practically do not notice it and react to it at the subconscious level.
The concept of
The centrifugal force is a kind of impact,which exerts a physical point on the forces that bind the freedom of its movement and cause it to move curvilinearly relative to its binding body. Since the displacement vector of such a body is constantly changing, even in the case when its absolute velocity remains unchanged, the magnitude of the acceleration will not be zero. Therefore, due to Newton's second law, which establishes the dependence of force on the mass and acceleration of the body, and the centrifugal force arises. Now let us recall the third rule of the famous English physicist. According to him, in nature, forces exist in pairs, which means that the centrifugal force must somehow balance out. In fact, there must be something that keeps the body on its curvilinear trajectory! So it is, in a pair with a centrifugal on a spinning object also acts as a centripetal force. The difference between them is that the first is applied to the body, and the second - to its connection with the point around which the rotation occurs.
Where the effect of centrifugal force is manifested
It is necessary to untwist a hand a small load, whichtied to the string, as soon as the tension of the twine begins to be felt. If there was no force of elasticity, the influence of centrifugal force would lead to the ripping of the rope. Every time we move along a circular path (on a bicycle, car, tram, etc.), we are pressed in the opposite direction from the turn. Therefore, on high-speed tracks, in areas with steep turns, the track has a special slope for giving more stability to competing racers. Let's consider one more interesting example. As our planet rotates around the axis, the centrifugal force acts on any objects that are on its surface. Because of this, all things become a little easier. If we take a weight of 1 kg and transfer it from the pole to the equator, its weight will decrease by 5 grams. At such scanty magnitudes, this circumstance seems to be insignificant. However, with increasing weight, this difference increases. For example, a locomotive that arrived in Odessa from Arkhangelsk will become lighter by 60 kg, and a battleship weighing 20,000 tons, which has made its way from the White Sea to the Black Sea, will become easier by as much as 80 tons! Why is this happening?Because the centrifugal force arising fromthe rotation of our planet, tends to scatter from the surface of the Earth everything that is on it. What determines the value of centrifugal force? Again we remember Newton's second rule. The first parameter affecting the value of the centrifugal force is, of course, the mass of the rotating body. And the second parameter is the acceleration, which in curvilinear motion depends on the speed of rotation and the radius described by the body. This relationship can be represented as a formula: a = v2/ R. It turns out: F = m * v2/ R. The scientists calculated that if our Earth rotated 17 times faster, then the equator would have zero gravity, and if the complete revolution was accomplished in just one hour, the loss of weight would be felt not only at the equator, but also in all seas and countries, who are with him.