Stages of the lesson on GEF. Stages of the modern lesson on GEF
Under the Federal State EducationalThe standard (GEF) should be understood as a set of mandatory requirements for the learning process at a certain level. To implement them, a basic program should be developed in the educational institution, consisting of a curriculum, a calendar schedule, working projects of courses, subjects, disciplines. It should also include methodological and evaluation materials. In accordance with this program, teachers build their professional activities during the school year as a whole, plan each lesson separately. Let us consider the main steps of the GEF lesson.
A lot of different subjects are taught in the school. The content of the information is certainly different. However, all lessons can be classified into the following groups:
- Discovery of new knowledge.
- Lessons of reflection.
- Classes of general methodological orientation.
- Lessons on developing control.
Each lesson is put and implementedspecific goals. So, in the classes of discovering new knowledge, students are able to use new methods of action, the conceptual base is being enlarged by joining new components. In the lessons of reflection, algorithms, terms, concepts that have already been studied are fixed and, if necessary, corrected. Generalized activity norms are formed in the classes of the general methodological direction, the theoretical foundations of the further development of the content-methodical directions are revealed. In addition, there is the formation of the ability to systematize and structure the studied material. At the lessons of developmental control, children develop self-analysis skills. It should be noted that the breakdown into the lessons of the GEF (second generation) lesson should not disrupt the continuity of training.
Description of the stages of the GEF lesson: "The discovery of new knowledge"
Each lesson is built according to a certain pattern. We can distinguish the following stages of the lesson on GEF (mathematics will be or Russian, in principle, it does not matter):
- Motivation for learning activities.
- Update and test action.
- Identifying the place and causes of the difficulty.
- Construction of the project and solution of the problem.
- Implementation of the model.
- Primary fixation with pronouncing out loud.
- Independent work with self-control.
- Inclusion in the system of knowledge and repetition.
- Reflexion of learning activities in class.
The objectives of the GEF lesson are different. However, along with this, they are closely interrelated with each other. The goal of motivation is the development at the individually significant level of the student's internal readiness to meet the established standards. The implementation of this task is ensured by:
- Creation of conditions for the emergence of an individual internal need to carry out activities.
- The actualization of the requirements for the student by the teacher.
- Establishment of a thematic framework for activities.
Update and trial action
As the main goal at this stage is thepreparation of children's thinking and organization of their understanding of their own needs for the formation of a new model of action. To achieve it, it is necessary that trainees:
- They reproduced and recorded the skills, knowledge and skills required to create a new model of behavior.
- Activated mental operations andcognitive processes. The first, in particular, include synthesis, analysis, generalization, comparison, analogy, classification, etc. Cognitive processes - attention, memory, etc.
- Actualized norm of educational action.
- They tried to fulfill the task of applying new knowledge independently.
- Fixed problems that appeared when implementing the trial action or when justifying it.
The key task at this stage is to realize what exactly is not enough knowledge, abilities or skills. To achieve this goal, it is necessary that children:
- Analyzed all their actions. It is worth saying that self-analysis accompanies all stages of the modern lesson (on GEF).
- We fixed a step or operation on which the problem appeared.
- Correlated their own actions at the point of origin of the difficulty with previously studied methods and determined which skills are not enough to solve the task posed, similar questions to it.
Building a project
The goal of this stage is to formulate the objectives of the activity and, on their basis, to choose the model and the means for their implementation. To achieve it, students:
- In a communicative form, the specific task of the forthcoming training activities is formulated, through which the previously identified cause of difficulties will be eliminated.
- Propose and agree on the topic of the lesson, which the teacher can clarify.
- Choose a model for the formation of new knowledge. As it may be a method of clarification or addition. The first is relevant in the event that a new model can be created on the basis of already acquired knowledge. The complement method is applied if the analogues studied are not available, and there is no need to introduce fundamentally new signs or a mode of action.
- Choose the means by which knowledge is formed. These include the studied models, algorithms, recording methods, concepts, formulas and other tools.
The main task is the formation of children a new model of action, the ability to apply it in solving the problem that caused the difficulty, and similar issues. For this, students:
- They put forward hypotheses on the basis of the chosen method and justify them.
- Use objective actions with schemes, models in building new knowledge.
- Apply the chosen method to solve the problem that caused the difficulty.
- Fix a generalized mode of action.
- Establish a solution to the problem that arose earlier.
It is necessary for children to learn a new method of action. This requires that children:
- They spoke out loud their steps and their justification.
- We solved several typical tasks for a new method of action. This can be done in pairs, in groups or frontal.
Self-test and self-test
These stages of the modern GEF lesson have a specialvalue. In the course of independent work, the degree of mastering the acquired knowledge is checked, and (if possible) a successful situation is formed. These stages of the GEF lesson suggest:
- Performing work similar to the first, but solving tasks in which mistakes were made before.
- Carrying out a self-test according to the standard and fixing the results.
- Establishing the overcoming of the difficulty that arose earlier.
These stages of the GEF lesson include a specialThe kind of work for those children who had problems with the solution for the first time. They engage in tasks of creative level on the model and then conduct an independent test of the results.
Incorporation into the sphere of knowledge and repetition
The key task is the application ofModels of actions that caused difficulty, consolidation of the studied material and preparation for the perception of the following sections of the subject. If the previous steps of the GEF lesson are passed satisfactorily, then the children:
- Solve problems in which the considered models of actions are connected with those studied earlier and with each other.
- Perform tasks aimed at preparing for the study of other (next) sections.
If the previous steps of the GEF lesson gave a negative result, the self-employed work is repeated and self-control for another option is carried out.
At this stage, the main goal - the awareness of childrenways of overcoming difficulties and self-assessment of the results of corrective or independent work. For this, the trainees need:
- Clarify the algorithm for correcting errors.
- Identify the methods of action that caused the difficulty.
- To fix the level of compliance of the goals and results achieved.
- Evaluate your work in the lesson.
- Identify goals for follow-up.
- Based on the results of the work, the homework is agreed upon in the lesson.
The exercise of developmental control
Consider, for example, the stages of the music lesson on GEF:
- Motivation to control and corrective activity.
- Actualization and trial learning activities.
- Localization of personal difficulties.
- Construction of the project to correct the detected problems.
- Implementation of the new model.
- Generalization of difficulties in speech.
- Independent work and verification of the standard.
- Solving problems of a creative level.
- Reflection of the work.
Performance of control activities
The main task of motivation to correctionalactivity is similar to the one described earlier and consists in developing the students' internal readiness to implement the requirements of educational work. In this case, however, there is a control-correctional orientation. In this connection it is necessary:
- Establish the purpose of the lesson and form the conditions for the emergence of the internal need for students to get involved in the work.
- To update the requirements imposed on the student by the control and corrective actions.
- In accordance with previously solved tasks, define thematic limits and create benchmarks for the work.
- Formulate the method and procedure of control.
- Determine the evaluation criterion.
Preparing the thinking of children
Students should be aware of their own need for control and self-analysis, identifying the causes of difficulties. To implement this task, you need:
- Conduct a repetition of controlled action models.
- To activate such mental operations as generalization, comparison, and also cognitive processes, which are necessary for the control work.
- To motivate children to carry out activities using planned methods of action.
- Create conditions for the performance of individual control work.
- Provide children with the opportunity to conduct self-analysis of their activities according to a pre-established criterion.
The general methodological focus
Stages of the combined lesson on GEFare oriented towards the formation in children of ideas about the methods that link the concepts they study to one system. In addition, they contribute to the awareness of methods for constructing a plan for the actual educational activity itself. It, in turn, provides for independent change and self-development of students. In these classes, the creation of norms and methods of educational activity, self-assessment and self-control, reflexive self-organization is carried out. Such studies are considered to be supra-subjective. They are held outside the scope of any discipline on a class hour or during an extra-curricular event.
The breakdown of lessons into stages allowsthe material is clearly structured, in a logical sequence, while ensuring continuous coordination of students' activities. For each lesson, tasks and options for students' actions should be determined. Of no less importance is the organizational stage of the lesson on GEF. It precedes the formation of motivations in children. After the greeting, the teacher checks the preparedness, determines the absent. After that, the attention of the students is focused, the necessary mood is set for the perception of information. If necessary and available, the teacher can adjust the plan of the lesson at the organizational stage.