Social pension in 2018
Despite the planned increase in the absolute value, the social pension in 2018 will fall below the subsistence minimum. In addition, pensions of working pensioners will remain without indexation, experts predict. Officials announce the start of a large-scale reform that will help balance the budget of the FIU.
Social pension: features and nuances
The level of social pension is fixed by the state. These payments are received by persons who have reached retirement age, but who are not entitled to receive an insurance pension. In addition, social benefits are intended for privileged categories - people with disabilities and children who have lost their breadwinner.
Regions have the right to increase the level of social pension established at the federal level. In this case, the premium will be paid from local budgets. At the same time, the state annually indexes social pensions according to the level of inflation, which will remain in force in 2018.
The current legislation provides for additional payments that increase the final pension. At the same time, pensioners receive a social allowance taking into account other types of state support: preferential travel, compensation for communication services, etc.
The latest news confirms the intention of officials to make indexation of social pensions in 2018 in full. Despite this, next year the amount of social benefits will fall below the subsistence minimum.
Insufficient increase: social pension in 2018
Despite the increase in the absolute indicator, the ratio of the old-age pension to the subsistence minimum will drop to 150%. Social pensions will show a more negative trend, reaching only 97.8% of the required minimum. This trend will affect the material situation of non-working pensioners, the number of which continues to increase. In some regions, up to 5% of the population are recipients of various social benefits.
The indexation of pensions in the next year will be made within the framework of actual inflation, officials underline. According to forecasts of representatives of the FIU, the average increase in the size of social pension in 2018 will be 7%.As a result, the level of payments will reach 9159 rubles, which will be a little under-penned to the subsistence minimum of a pensioner.
The consumer basket, on the basis of which the subsistence minimum of a pensioner is determined, is calculated by officials based on statistical forecasts of the inflation rate for basic foodstuffs and non-food items. In 2017, the government reduced this figure to 8,540 rubles, which practically corresponds to the size of the social pension - 8,552 rubles. A year earlier, the required minimum exceeded 8,800 rubles.
According to officials, the adjustment of the indicator is associated with a significant slowdown in price growth. However, experts emphasize the imbalance of the federal budget, which affects the financial capacity of the government.
The economic crisis has demonstrated the vulnerability of the domestic pension model. The decline in revenues from energy exports has forced officials to move to optimize costs. Including there was a decrease in social spending, which led to a drop in real incomes of pensioners.
The fall of the economy and the rapid devaluation of the ruble led to an acceleration of the inflation index. At the same time, there were no funds in the budget for appropriate indexation of payments to current pensioners. In 2017, the authorities returned to the full increase in payments, which was enshrined at the legislative level. However, this will not help to compensate for the real depreciation of pensions during the crisis.
The deficit of the Pension Fund in the current year exceeds 200 billion rubles. In subsequent years, this trend will continue, as demographic factors remain unfavorable. The increase in the number of pensioners per worker will increase the deficit of the Pension Fund in the medium term.
To balance the pension model, appropriate reforms are needed, analysts emphasize. This position is shared by representatives of the economic bloc, who announce the start of transformations in the next year. The transformations launched in 2018 will determine what social pension is awaiting Russians in the near future.
The social security system needs to be radically transformed.Low labor productivity, demographic problems and a significant proportion of salaries in envelopes create structural imbalances in the pension system. In addition, the existence of early pensions and lowered standards of work experience create an additional burden on the budget of the Pension Fund. At the same time, the created accumulative system remains frozen and needs significant changes.
In such circumstances, the authorities cannot ensure an adequate increase in pensions in 2018, including social benefits to pensioners. A significant part of the expenses of the FIU is financed by frozen funds generated in the accumulative system. According to experts, next year, officials will be able to attract more than 440 billion rubles from this source.
Experts are considering several areas that will help balance the income and expenditure of the FIU. First of all, it is raising the retirement age and adjusting the requirements for work experience. In addition, officials should revise existing industry benefits. Including it is necessary to reduce the categories of citizens who have the right to early retirement.
The implementation of these measures will reduce the annual cost of the FIU by 500-600 billion rubles, experts predict. Another area that will help improve the financial position of the FIU is the increase in insurance premiums. To do this, it is necessary to strengthen the fight against shadow wages, which deprive the budget of significant revenues. In addition, the government can revise the current premium rates and switch to a differentiated approach for different income levels.
Social pension, including disability payments and assistance to children deprived of the breadwinner, will be indexed in full in 2018. Despite a similar initiative of officials, the size of social pensions will not reach the subsistence level. To change this trend, fundamental transformations of the existing pension model are necessary.