Polar bears: The Red Book of Russia
Today there are a lot ofspecies of animals that require special attention for the reason that they become rare and in the near future they may face extinction. This group includes such animals as polar bears. The Red Book is designed to keep records of rare and endangered species of animals, some of its pages are devoted to the polar bear.
The habitats of polar bears
This kind of animal is interesting already because itsRepresentatives live in places that are not suitable for life. It's about the Arctic with its harsh climate. Low air temperatures, prolonged winter, polar nights did not become an obstacle for the polar bear.
The expanses of the Arctic Ocean with its lifeless islands, the northern outskirts of Eurasia and North America - the place where the polar bear dwells.
Red book, various encyclopedias and manyother sources, providing information about this animal, indicate its significant difference from other species of bears living on the planet. Certain features of the animal may be indicated even by its name. From the language of some peoples or scientific sources it is known that the animal is called in different ways - sea, northern, polar bear.
Paths of evolution
Scientists for a long time believed that the path of developmentwhite and brown bears separated approximately one hundred and fifty thousand years ago. And this happened in the area of the planet that modern Ireland occupies. But the latest research has made it necessary to change this point of view. Today, science says that the separation of species happened much earlier - an average of about six hundred thousand years ago. During this long period, the animals had differences that were associated not only with the habitat, food conditions, but also the external appearance, although the genetic material indicates that these animals once had a common ancestor.
The sad fact is also common that allbears today are animals of the Red Book. The polar bear, brown, Himalayan and other species of these unique animals need protection, which only a person can give to them. Although, it was he who became the main reason for the reduction in their numbers on Earth.
Learn all about the white bear, as well as its relativescan be found on the pages of numerous publications, where scientists' studies, stories of people who meet in nature with these unique and at the same time very dangerous animals are placed.
I must say that not always the meeting endedsafely, without the sad consequences, if its participants were a man and a polar bear. The Red Book therefore appeared that people sometimes tried to prevent the actions of a predator and destroyed it before he himself attacked a person or his home. But not always the actions of people were reasonable enough, and eventually this led to a reduction in the number of polar bear individuals.
Appearance and features of the structure of the body
Long neck, flat head - the main differencepolar bear from brown in the structure of the body. The limbs of the animal have a pillar-like appearance. Feet very wide. This helps the bears to move through deep snow without falling through. Due to the special structure of the foot and the fact that they are covered with wool, polar bears can easily move along the ice surface. Despite the huge body weight, they easily overcome hummocks up to two meters high.
The color of the bear's skin is black, and the skin has a color from white to yellowish hue. This coloring of the bear's fur acquires in the summer, when the sunlight is especially felt.
Types of polar bears
Types of animals that live in different regionsvast territory of the Arctic, have differences between themselves. The largest polar bears live on the islands of the Bering Sea. Individuals weigh around 1000 kilograms with a body length of up to three meters.
Most of the existing species of polar bears reach 450 kilograms of weight at a height of about two meters. Females are slightly smaller than males. Their weight is an average of about 300 kilograms.
The islands of Spitsbergen are the habitats of the smallestBy the size of representatives of these formidable animals, such as polar bears. The Red Book has protected all existing species of bears living in the Arctic.
Adaptation to life in the Arctic
Special care for the owner of the icy deserts is shown byThe Red Book of Russia. The polar bear lives only in the Arctic, most of which belongs to the Russian state. In addition, polar bears are found on the continental part of Eurasia in the zone of ice deserts.
In other parts of the world, a polar bear does not live. There are cases when animals on ice floes fell into warmer climates, and this caused them great problems.
How did the animal adapt to such severeliving conditions in the Arctic? First, the body is covered with thick fur. Secondly, the structure of woolens promotes air retention in them, which makes fur warmer. A significant layer of fatty tissue also saves the animal's body from hypothermia. At the harshest time of the year its thickness is about ten centimeters.
With such insulation, bears are not afraid of bears eitherstorms, no severe frosts, no ice water of the ocean and the northern seas. Polar bears are excellent swimmers. In search of prey, they can swim a day to 80 kilometers. In this they are helped by a special structure of the paws, between the fingers of which there are membranes. When swimming, the limbs of an animal work like fins.
What is the food of the northern bear
The polar bear is a predator, so it feeds onMeat of animals living next to it. The bear hunts in both water and land. With smaller animals, such as the seal, the predator easily manages in the water. He stuns the victim with a paw, and pulls it out onto the ice.
The rivalry with the walrus is under the power of the polar bearonly on land. The skin of a dead animal and fat is the main delicacy for a predator. If there is no severe hunger, then the bear leaves the meat untouched, it is eaten by other smaller predators.
The reasons for the reduction in the number of animals
Anyone who tries to learn everything about whitebear, it will be easy to find information that one bear in his life can produce no more than fifteen cubs. When feeding offspring, the death of young animals is inevitable - the harsh conditions of life make themselves felt. Comparing these two facts, it is not difficult to assume that it is possible to reduce the number of animals for natural reasons.
To this we need to add facts of illegal hunting,the object of which is increasingly becoming polar bears. The Red Book of our country and other countries of the world is trying to stop the process of reducing the number of these animals.
Animals of the Red Book of the Russian Federation
The polar bear, along with other animals, has been under state protection since 1956. On the territory of Russia hunting for it is completely prohibited. In countries such as Canada, the United States, it is limited.
For the population living in the northern regionsLand, long since the object of hunting were polar bears. The red book of states interested in preserving the animal population tried to change the situation.
Meat and the skin of the bears, for which they wentdestruction, in the modern world are not the only source of food available to humans, the material used for arranging dwellings, making clothes. Therefore hunting for bears has ceased to be considered as a necessity. It is classified as poaching and is prosecuted by law.
As a result of the measures taken, a rare animal- polar bear. The Red Book described the number and species of the population in 1993. By this time, not only the restoration of individuals was noted, but also a small increase in the number of animals.