Nuclear Power Plants in Russia
The experience of the past shows:to replace some energy sources with others it takes about a century. So, the tree was replaced with coal, coal - oil, oil - gas, and atomic energy was replaced by chemical fuels. The starting point of the history of mastery of the last type of energy can be considered 1939, when the fission of uranium was discovered. It was then that IV Kurchatov substantiated the need to conduct research related to atomic energy.
Seven years later in Rhothe first nuclearreactor, then still experimental. The uranium mining industry began to develop, with the goal of producing plutonium-239 with uranium-235 (nuclear fuel, which nuclear power plants required).
In 1954, they launched a nuclear power plant in Obninsk. The world still did not know what nuclear power plants are like.
Three years later the legendary icebreaker "Lenin" was launched, which became the world's first nuclear ship.
It took only a decade and a half for large-scale development of nuclear power. Now nuclear power plants are built around the world.
Energy is the engine, the basis of the fundamentals.Virtually all the goods created by civilization, from an elementary light bulb to devices that explore outer space, require a certain amount of energy. And nuclear power plants supply the cheapest energy today. The energy of the atom is ultimately used by absolutely all branches of the modern economy. It is used in biology, medicine, agriculture, metallurgy, engineering, etc.
Virtually all nuclear power plants in Russiaare built in densely populated areas. In operation now 10 such power plants (32 power units, in plan - construction of 26 more reactors, and two - floating). In the 30-kilometer zone adjacent to them, about 5 million people live.
The strength of the undeniable advantages of nuclear power plants is great, but one can not ignore the disadvantages.
Hydropower requireslarge reservoirs that flood huge tracts of fertile land off the banks of rivers. Water stagnates, loses its quality, and, in turn, other problems related to water supply, fisheries, leisure industry are aggravated. But the main thing here after all - environmental problems. Heat power plants are gradually destroying the natural environment of the Earth, the biosphere. It would seem that the accident-free operation of the nuclear power plant excludes various kinds of pollution. But for some reason they keep silent about the heat, because it is also a kind of pollution. Over 100 nuclear power plants have been built around the world, with only 10% of nuclear power plants in Russia, and several reactors at each power plant. The product of the operation of the reactors is radioactive waste, potentially hazardous. Of course, the amount of waste is small, the "working off" is stored in special containers, which seem to exclude leakage. And some countries (Russia including) even recycle these wastes, but the risk still remains, which means there is still cause for concern.
Since the launch of the first nuclear power plantrecorded more than one and a half hundred different severity of incidents.