How to choose lamps for the bathroom: which is better and why? Comparative review

Most of the bathrooms have no access to sunlight, so you have to rely solely on artificial lighting. To ensure the optimal luminous flux, you need to correctly select the lamps for the bathroom, right? But you do not know how best to plan their location, how to determine the power of the installed lamps and what type of devices to prefer?

We will help you in this difficult issue - the article describes the main ways of organizing lighting in the bathroom. Selected photographs with original ideas for interior design.

The article also discusses the features of the choice of lighting devices, which should occur with an eye to the difficult working conditions: high humidity and temperature fluctuations.Useful recommendations regarding the importance of the technical parameters of future fixtures are given in the video.

Technical requirements for luminaires

Bathroom - a zone with extreme conditions. In places with constant temperature extremes and high humidity, the installation of ordinary sockets and lamps is prohibited for safety reasons.

The main parameter of the choice of the lighting device is the degree of security. Corresponding marking is displayed on the body of electrical products.

Some manufacturers use three-digit labeling. The third digit - the degree of susceptibility to mechanical damage, shock. The range of values ​​is 0-10.

The highest level of protection indicates that if the case is damaged, the performance characteristics of the appliance are preserved.

The degree of security of the appliance
The system of IP values ​​corresponds to GOST 14254-96, standard IEC60529. The first number of the abbreviation displays the level of protection of the lamp from dust, the second marker - protection from moisture

The higher the numerical value of the marking, the more reliable the luminaire. Moisture-proof devices are equipped with additional elements that reduce the risk of water and dust entering the conductive parts of the device:

  • rubber seals on the ceiling;
  • plugs of hermetic material on the supply wire.

The minimum IP rating for luminaires in “wet” rooms is IP442, the maximum is IP674. It is acceptable to use products with protection above the maximum - increased safety, in any case, is welcome.

Security zones
The choice of indicator of security of the lamp depends on its location in the bathroom. In terms of proximity to direct sources of moisture, the room is divided into three zones

IP index values ​​for each zone:

  1. The first zone.The humidity around the bowl of the bath, shower and washbasin reaches 100%. Here we allow the installation of low-voltage devices with protection of at least IP67, designed for temporary immersion in water.
  2. The second zone.Within a radius of 30-60 cm from the “wet” zone, a high probability of splashes and jets entering the appliance remains. On the site it is not advisable to use high-voltage electrical appliances, the indicator of the protection of the lamp - not lower than IP45, power - 12-24 V.
  3. Third zone.Relatively safe - 60 cm from the borders of the second zone. The risk of direct jets is almost absent. Circular spray protection models are installed - IP24 and higher.

A space at a distance of 3 m or more relative to the water source is considered safe.It is possible to install fixtures with IP01.

Bathroom fixtures
It is important to consider wall features and ventilation efficiency. If condensate constantly forms on remote walls after taking a hot shower, they cannot be considered safe. Luminaires are selected as for the first-second zone

The variety of lamps "marine elite"

Artificial lighting of the bathroom is conventionally divided into three levels: ceiling, wall and floor. The combination of methods will provide an interesting decorative effect. It is not necessary to use the whole spectrum at the same time. The main thing is to get a full luminous flux for a comfortable stay in the room.

No. 1 - ceiling lighting options

Ceiling lights provide basic bathroom lighting. The choice of instrument depends on the size of the room, the design of the ceiling and the presence of secondary sources of light.

Popular solutions for highlight:

  • mounted or suspended cover;
  • LED Strip Light;
  • light panel;
  • spots;
  • spotlight stretch or suspended ceiling.

Traditional chandelier.This option is more suitable for spacious bathrooms with high ceilings.The main advantages of the solution: a diverse range and ease of installation. The defining criterion for choosing a chandelier is that the fixture matches the interior of the bathroom.

Chandelier in the bathroom
The volume crystal chandelier looks good in a classic or minimalist style with a limited number of decorative details. Original performance - chandelier-candlestick

An alternative version of crystal - glass and metal models. Pros: affordable cost and various styles of lighting for the bathroom. Minus - the appearance of stains and drips from the water.

Lamp in nautical style
For the bathroom in the marine style fit lighting with the decor of natural materials: wood and fabric ropes

LED Strip Light.LED backlight is presented in the form of LEDs and resistors attached to a cool ribbon base. For the “wet” areas of the premises, waterproof tapes with an IP65-68 index have been developed.

The luminous strip with IP65 is sealed on one side - the insulation covers the outer part of the printed circuit board, including LEDs and contacts.

The advantages of backlighting:

  • simplicity of installation - the tape is placed under the ceiling plinth;
  • the ability to adjust the intensity of illumination;
  • variety of colors of light - you can make a smooth transition in a given spectrum.

To create a “ribbon” illumination of the ceiling zone, a LED strip with IP65 and IP67 is suitable.

LED ceiling lights
The use of LED-tapes is an excellent solution for ceilings of complex configuration. Illumination emphasizes the versatility of the planes and changes the visual perception of space

Light panel.This is not just a separate luminaire, but a special ceiling structure consisting of individual elements:

  • lamps mounted directly on the ceiling;
  • decorative plastic or glass panel overlapping lamps;
  • frame with guides for fixing panels.

The main advantage is the unlimited choice of design. Using photo printing, you can recreate any picture: the starry sky, the underwater world, the picturesque landscape, etc.

Light panel
The lack of light fabric - to replace a burnt out lamp, it will be necessary to dismantle part of the panel. If mistreated, fragile parts may break.

SpotsConsignment "flashlight", where more than one luminaire is installed on one holder.Despite an interesting idea, spotlights are rarely used for ceiling lighting.

Firstly, the product looks cumbersome in a bathroom with low ceilings, and secondly, it is problematic to adjust the light flux vector.

Ceiling spots
The main objective of the spots is to create a directional light "beam", local illumination of a specific zone, for example, a mirror. This "flashlight" is used as an additional light.

Spotlights.This type of electrical appliances is indispensable when installing suspended or "French" ceiling. The layout of fixtures is thought out in advance, taking into account the zoning of the room and the power of the lamps.

Having distributed the “points of light” over the entire ceiling area, it is possible to set several switching modes: at the same time, all appliances or a group of lamps to highlight a specific zone, for example, a shower or a washbasin

Depending on the design features, the following types of spotlights are distinguished:

  • built-in;
  • half cut;
  • invoices;
  • sectional.

Embedded. Instruments are used for flush mounting - only the cover remains in view. When choosing, it is necessary to take into account the amount of "penetration" and the width of the ceiling-ceiling space.The minimum length of the "legs" mortise lamp - 40 mm.

Some models require a significant reduction in the suspended structure, which is undesirable to do with low ceilings and limited room dimensions.

Built-in lights
The light from the recessed luminaires is directed vertically downwards and does not diffuse across the ceiling. It is undesirable to insert powerful lamps into the point-mounted wall-mounted sconces - overheating of the suspended structure is possible

Half cut. The technical “body” of the luminaire is placed behind the ceiling, and the light bulb is outside. For installation, the ceiling-mounted space is used, but at the expense of the external ceiling, the installation of more powerful lamps is permissible.

Overhead. Exterior mounting is applicable for most types of ceilings. Overhead lights are more expensive than mortise models, but have a number of significant advantages:

  • there is no need to lower the ceiling level;
  • universality;
  • decorative effect of light scattering through the prism of textured glass.

The design of the lamp base is impressive. Mirror, shiny materials and metals inlaid with stones look spectacular on the ceiling surface.

Overhead lights
Outdoor lamps illuminate the surrounding space - the room itself and the surface of the ceiling. Especially advantageous lamps complement glossy stretch canvas

Sectional. This is a kind of hybrid spot and spotlights. A single decorative plate contains several lamps. As a rule, the illumination vector can be set for each micro-lamp.

Sectional lights
Sectional models, in contrast to the overhead spots on a single holder, do not visually “hide” the space, but are exacting to the location

No. 2 - working lighting with wall models

The purpose of wall fixtures is zoning of the room and local lighting. The use of wall "lights" is appropriate in spacious rooms ranging from 6 sq. M. In a compact room, you can limit the ceiling light.

Popular options for wall "water" lamps:

  • sconce;
  • surface-mounted illuminators;
  • spots.

SconceTraditional design - one or more ceiling lamps mounted on a single bracket.

Wall sconce
Wall sconces are presented in any style - from classic to modern. Optimal installation location - double placement on the sides of the mirror

Overhead lights.The compact cover does not take up much space and is closely fixed to the wall. It is better to choose models made of moisture resistant materials: stainless steel in tandem with glass and transparent plastic.

Overhead lights
Overhead lights are versatile - they are suitable for vertical and horizontal placement. When choosing repelled from the shape of the mirror. Neutral execution of the ceiling harmoniously complements the modern interiors

SpotsWall mounting allows you to maximize the purpose of the spot - local lighting.

Wall spots
When choosing a luminaire, it is necessary to estimate the size of the ceiling - after installation it should not be reflected in the mirror. Option number 1 - the correct placement, number 2 - wrong

In the second case, the light from the spot will blind the eyes - using the mirror will become uncomfortable. For this zone, you should not choose lamps with colored shades - the lights will “give” an unnatural complexion and hair. Optimally - frosted or white glass.

It is worth paying attention to the type of light beam wall "lantern". There are two types:

  1. Directional Reflectors. Light is supplied at a certain angle.Perhaps one or two third-party (up / down) light flux vector. The shape of the case allows you to concentrate the backlight in a certain area.
  2. Ceiling diffusers. Such models belong to the lamps of general lighting, their area of ​​"action" - 360 °. Light scatters in the room evenly.

If the aim is to create not only practical, but also spectacular lighting, you can interestingly beat the walls with the help of spotlights, bright light panels, LED ribbons.

Design options
Dot "lights" is placed in the niches, and highlight the glass shelves. LED strip is placed behind the wall ledges, emphasizing the bulkiness of the surface

No. 3 - decorative floor lighting

Outdoor lighting embodies a special atmosphere in the bathroom. This background, decorative light.

To implement the design ideas using different methods:

  • installation of LED backlight;
  • mounting spotlights;
  • creating a glass floor;
  • use of glowing tiles;
  • arrangement of the bulk basis.

LED lights.There are many options for decorating LED-tape.The strip is mounted along the plinth line - the perimeter of the room, and also used to highlight plumbing fixtures - an airtight tape “runs” along the contour of the bathtub or washbasin.

The main advantage of the method is the ability to install after repair.

In contrast with the dark floor glowing patches look spectacular.

LED floor lighting
The LEDs are placed chaotically on the cable, and then the wire is installed in the interlayer stitch. The joints are covered with black silicone, while the LEDs remain open. It is important that the “points of light” do not protrude above the tile.

Spotlights.The use of floor spot lighting has its own characteristics. The advantages of lamps include:

  • resistance to mechanical damage - the luminaires are made of durable plastic;
  • the possibility of any location - the distance between the lamps is chosen arbitrarily;
  • create beautiful highlights on surrounding objects.

Disadvantages of "points of light": the complexity of installation and wiring hidden wiring, the need for periodic replacement of light bulbs.

Spot floor lamps
An example of successful combination into a single tandem of wall LED-lighting with spotlights of the ceiling, wall and local specular lighting

Glass floor.Exquisite design technique radically changes the look of the familiar bathroom environment. To arrange a glass niche, you will have to raise the floor by 10 cm.

The unusual “lamp” is made of tempered laminated glass or triplex, LED strip or linear lamps are suitable for lighting.

Glass floor
Filling a niche: decorative stones, shells, small pebbles, dried flowers, glitter or beads. A bold decision - a glowing aquarium in the floor

Luminescent materials.An alternative to traditional methods of lighting - finishing materials with a luminous effect.

Plus method - independence from electricity. Cons: the high cost and the inability to turn off such a "lamp".

Fluorescent finish
For lining the base used luminescent floor or tile. In the first case, a light fabric is obtained over the entire floor area; in the second, it is possible to limit the amount of “light” by combining ordinary tile with luminous

The choice of lamps for the "water" lamp

When pondering which lamp is best for the bathroom, it is important to decide on the type of lamp, brightness and optimal tone of lighting.

Criterion # 1 - optimal product performance

In everyday life, the most popular traditional incandescent bulbs, fluorescent products and LEDs.

Incandescent lamps.Depending on the gas composition inside the cylinder, they are vacuum, krypton and halogen. Inert gas lamps (krypton) are resistant to power surges, halogen lamps have good light output and work longer.

Characteristics of incandescent bulbs
Characteristics of incandescent bulbs: 1 - krypton, 2 - halogen. Luminaires with halogen lamps are suitable for installation in a plasterboard niche

Fluorescent lamps.The so-called fluorescent lamps have a different degree of color rendering, which determines the natural glow. The main advantages of fluorescent lamps:

  • low heating temperature;
  • the duration of the work;
  • soft light.

Modern modifications are suitable for connection to a standard lamp holder.

Characteristics of fluorescent lamps
Disadvantages: the work is accompanied by a slight hum, toxicity, the duration of the maximum luminescence. When operating in the on / off constant mode, the lamps quickly burn out

LED products.The high cost of the lamp is justified by low power consumption, good light output and long-term operation.

Additional advantages include: compactness, low heating of the bulb, resistance to mechanical stress and voltage interruptions.

LED lamp specifications
LEDs are the best choice for the bathroom. Preference should be given to the product with an aluminum radiator, plastic indicates a low quality lamp

Criterion # 2 - calculation of the power of the glow

The international standard ISO8995 regulates the level of illumination of bathrooms. Recommended rate - 200 lux (Lk). To characterize the light output of the lamps, lumens (Lm) are used, 1 Lx = 1 Lm / sq.m.

For example, the normal illumination of a room of 7 square meters is 1,400 lx, 10 sq. M - 2,000 lx, respectively. Based on the calculated data, selected power and the number of lamps.

The degree of light output is directly dependent on the type and power of the lighting device. For example, at the same power, the luminescent product produces 7 times more light than an incandescent lamp.

Light output
From the table it can be seen that to get 1200 Lm needed to illuminate a bathroom of 6 sq. M, an LED lamp of 11 W, equivalent to a 100 W incandescent lamp, will be suitable

Criterion # 3 - color rendering index and tone lighting

The comfort of perception of light depends on how natural the surrounding objects look with artificial light.The parameter is expressed by the color rendering coefficient and is indicated on the packaging of the lighting device - Ra or CRI.

The light source CRI = 100 provides real display of objects. The maximum color rendering index has natural sunlight. The lower the Ra, the more distorted the perception.

Color rendering index
The color rendering index of the LEDs is in the range of 80-89. Choose a lamp with a lower rate is not worth it, especially for the backlight mirror

The hue of the illuminated object is determined by the color temperature, the unit of measurement is Kelvin (K). White plumbing may appear yellowish or shining blue.

When choosing a color should proceed from the prevailing tones in the interior and personal preferences.

Colorful temperature
A room with a predominance of blue-blue finish looks good in neutral lighting (4000-5000 K). A bath in pink, chocolate and sand tones will become even more comfortable with a “warm” backlight with a change of color temperature - 2700-3800 K

The glow of different temperatures affects a person differently. Warm white tone helps to relax, neutral - to concentrate, cold energizes and energizes.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

The video describes the main factors in the choice of electrical equipment, the requirements for "water" lamps, and also gives recommendations on the zoning of space using lighting:

The competent choice of the lamp and the successful placement of light accents can visually increase the closed bathroom space. Equally important in arranging a comfortable and practical room will play the selection of brightness, color and shade of the lamp.

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