How to choose lamps for the bathroom: which is better and why? Comparative review
Most of the bathrooms have no access to sunlight, so you have to rely solely on artificial lighting. To ensure the optimal luminous flux, you need to correctly select the lamps for the bathroom, right? But you do not know how best to plan their location, how to determine the power of the installed lamps and what type of devices to prefer?
We will help you in this difficult issue - the article describes the main ways of organizing lighting in the bathroom. Selected photographs with original ideas for interior design.
The article also discusses the features of the choice of lighting devices, which should occur with an eye to the difficult working conditions: high humidity and temperature fluctuations.Useful recommendations regarding the importance of the technical parameters of future fixtures are given in the video.
Technical requirements for luminaires
Bathroom - a zone with extreme conditions. In places with constant temperature extremes and high humidity, the installation of ordinary sockets and lamps is prohibited for safety reasons.
The main parameter of the choice of the lighting device is the degree of security. Corresponding marking is displayed on the body of electrical products.
Some manufacturers use three-digit labeling. The third digit - the degree of susceptibility to mechanical damage, shock. The range of values is 0-10.
The highest level of protection indicates that if the case is damaged, the performance characteristics of the appliance are preserved.
The higher the numerical value of the marking, the more reliable the luminaire. Moisture-proof devices are equipped with additional elements that reduce the risk of water and dust entering the conductive parts of the device:
- rubber seals on the ceiling;
- plugs of hermetic material on the supply wire.
The minimum IP rating for luminaires in “wet” rooms is IP442, the maximum is IP674. It is acceptable to use products with protection above the maximum - increased safety, in any case, is welcome.
IP index values for each zone:
- The first zone.The humidity around the bowl of the bath, shower and washbasin reaches 100%. Here we allow the installation of low-voltage devices with protection of at least IP67, designed for temporary immersion in water.
- The second zone.Within a radius of 30-60 cm from the “wet” zone, a high probability of splashes and jets entering the appliance remains. On the site it is not advisable to use high-voltage electrical appliances, the indicator of the protection of the lamp - not lower than IP45, power - 12-24 V.
- Third zone.Relatively safe - 60 cm from the borders of the second zone. The risk of direct jets is almost absent. Circular spray protection models are installed - IP24 and higher.
A space at a distance of 3 m or more relative to the water source is considered safe.It is possible to install fixtures with IP01.
The variety of lamps "marine elite"
Artificial lighting of the bathroom is conventionally divided into three levels: ceiling, wall and floor. The combination of methods will provide an interesting decorative effect. It is not necessary to use the whole spectrum at the same time. The main thing is to get a full luminous flux for a comfortable stay in the room.
No. 1 - ceiling lighting options
Ceiling lights provide basic bathroom lighting. The choice of instrument depends on the size of the room, the design of the ceiling and the presence of secondary sources of light.
Popular solutions for highlight:
- mounted or suspended cover;
- LED Strip Light;
- light panel;
- spotlight stretch or suspended ceiling.
Traditional chandelier.This option is more suitable for spacious bathrooms with high ceilings.The main advantages of the solution: a diverse range and ease of installation. The defining criterion for choosing a chandelier is that the fixture matches the interior of the bathroom.
An alternative version of crystal - glass and metal models. Pros: affordable cost and various styles of lighting for the bathroom. Minus - the appearance of stains and drips from the water.
LED Strip Light.LED backlight is presented in the form of LEDs and resistors attached to a cool ribbon base. For the “wet” areas of the premises, waterproof tapes with an IP65-68 index have been developed.
The luminous strip with IP65 is sealed on one side - the insulation covers the outer part of the printed circuit board, including LEDs and contacts.
The advantages of backlighting:
- simplicity of installation - the tape is placed under the ceiling plinth;
- the ability to adjust the intensity of illumination;
- variety of colors of light - you can make a smooth transition in a given spectrum.
To create a “ribbon” illumination of the ceiling zone, a LED strip with IP65 and IP67 is suitable.
Light panel.This is not just a separate luminaire, but a special ceiling structure consisting of individual elements:
- lamps mounted directly on the ceiling;
- decorative plastic or glass panel overlapping lamps;
- frame with guides for fixing panels.
The main advantage is the unlimited choice of design. Using photo printing, you can recreate any picture: the starry sky, the underwater world, the picturesque landscape, etc.
SpotsConsignment "flashlight", where more than one luminaire is installed on one holder.Despite an interesting idea, spotlights are rarely used for ceiling lighting.
Firstly, the product looks cumbersome in a bathroom with low ceilings, and secondly, it is problematic to adjust the light flux vector.
Spotlights.This type of electrical appliances is indispensable when installing suspended or "French" ceiling. The layout of fixtures is thought out in advance, taking into account the zoning of the room and the power of the lamps.
Depending on the design features, the following types of spotlights are distinguished:
- half cut;
Embedded. Instruments are used for flush mounting - only the cover remains in view. When choosing, it is necessary to take into account the amount of "penetration" and the width of the ceiling-ceiling space.The minimum length of the "legs" mortise lamp - 40 mm.
Some models require a significant reduction in the suspended structure, which is undesirable to do with low ceilings and limited room dimensions.
Half cut. The technical “body” of the luminaire is placed behind the ceiling, and the light bulb is outside. For installation, the ceiling-mounted space is used, but at the expense of the external ceiling, the installation of more powerful lamps is permissible.
Overhead. Exterior mounting is applicable for most types of ceilings. Overhead lights are more expensive than mortise models, but have a number of significant advantages:
- there is no need to lower the ceiling level;
- decorative effect of light scattering through the prism of textured glass.
The design of the lamp base is impressive. Mirror, shiny materials and metals inlaid with stones look spectacular on the ceiling surface.
Sectional. This is a kind of hybrid spot and spotlights. A single decorative plate contains several lamps. As a rule, the illumination vector can be set for each micro-lamp.
No. 2 - working lighting with wall models
The purpose of wall fixtures is zoning of the room and local lighting. The use of wall "lights" is appropriate in spacious rooms ranging from 6 sq. M. In a compact room, you can limit the ceiling light.
Popular options for wall "water" lamps:
- surface-mounted illuminators;
SconceTraditional design - one or more ceiling lamps mounted on a single bracket.
Overhead lights.The compact cover does not take up much space and is closely fixed to the wall. It is better to choose models made of moisture resistant materials: stainless steel in tandem with glass and transparent plastic.
SpotsWall mounting allows you to maximize the purpose of the spot - local lighting.
In the second case, the light from the spot will blind the eyes - using the mirror will become uncomfortable. For this zone, you should not choose lamps with colored shades - the lights will “give” an unnatural complexion and hair. Optimally - frosted or white glass.
It is worth paying attention to the type of light beam wall "lantern". There are two types:
- Directional Reflectors. Light is supplied at a certain angle.Perhaps one or two third-party (up / down) light flux vector. The shape of the case allows you to concentrate the backlight in a certain area.
- Ceiling diffusers. Such models belong to the lamps of general lighting, their area of "action" - 360 °. Light scatters in the room evenly.
If the aim is to create not only practical, but also spectacular lighting, you can interestingly beat the walls with the help of spotlights, bright light panels, LED ribbons.
No. 3 - decorative floor lighting
Outdoor lighting embodies a special atmosphere in the bathroom. This background, decorative light.
To implement the design ideas using different methods:
- installation of LED backlight;
- mounting spotlights;
- creating a glass floor;
- use of glowing tiles;
- arrangement of the bulk basis.
LED lights.There are many options for decorating LED-tape.The strip is mounted along the plinth line - the perimeter of the room, and also used to highlight plumbing fixtures - an airtight tape “runs” along the contour of the bathtub or washbasin.
The main advantage of the method is the ability to install after repair.
In contrast with the dark floor glowing patches look spectacular.
Spotlights.The use of floor spot lighting has its own characteristics. The advantages of lamps include:
- resistance to mechanical damage - the luminaires are made of durable plastic;
- the possibility of any location - the distance between the lamps is chosen arbitrarily;
- create beautiful highlights on surrounding objects.
Disadvantages of "points of light": the complexity of installation and wiring hidden wiring, the need for periodic replacement of light bulbs.
Glass floor.Exquisite design technique radically changes the look of the familiar bathroom environment. To arrange a glass niche, you will have to raise the floor by 10 cm.
The unusual “lamp” is made of tempered laminated glass or triplex, LED strip or linear lamps are suitable for lighting.
Luminescent materials.An alternative to traditional methods of lighting - finishing materials with a luminous effect.
Plus method - independence from electricity. Cons: the high cost and the inability to turn off such a "lamp".
The choice of lamps for the "water" lamp
When pondering which lamp is best for the bathroom, it is important to decide on the type of lamp, brightness and optimal tone of lighting.
Criterion # 1 - optimal product performance
In everyday life, the most popular traditional incandescent bulbs, fluorescent products and LEDs.
Incandescent lamps.Depending on the gas composition inside the cylinder, they are vacuum, krypton and halogen. Inert gas lamps (krypton) are resistant to power surges, halogen lamps have good light output and work longer.
Fluorescent lamps.The so-called fluorescent lamps have a different degree of color rendering, which determines the natural glow. The main advantages of fluorescent lamps:
- low heating temperature;
- the duration of the work;
- soft light.
Modern modifications are suitable for connection to a standard lamp holder.
LED products.The high cost of the lamp is justified by low power consumption, good light output and long-term operation.
Additional advantages include: compactness, low heating of the bulb, resistance to mechanical stress and voltage interruptions.
Criterion # 2 - calculation of the power of the glow
The international standard ISO8995 regulates the level of illumination of bathrooms. Recommended rate - 200 lux (Lk). To characterize the light output of the lamps, lumens (Lm) are used, 1 Lx = 1 Lm / sq.m.
For example, the normal illumination of a room of 7 square meters is 1,400 lx, 10 sq. M - 2,000 lx, respectively. Based on the calculated data, selected power and the number of lamps.
The degree of light output is directly dependent on the type and power of the lighting device. For example, at the same power, the luminescent product produces 7 times more light than an incandescent lamp.
Criterion # 3 - color rendering index and tone lighting
The comfort of perception of light depends on how natural the surrounding objects look with artificial light.The parameter is expressed by the color rendering coefficient and is indicated on the packaging of the lighting device - Ra or CRI.
The light source CRI = 100 provides real display of objects. The maximum color rendering index has natural sunlight. The lower the Ra, the more distorted the perception.
The hue of the illuminated object is determined by the color temperature, the unit of measurement is Kelvin (K). White plumbing may appear yellowish or shining blue.
When choosing a color should proceed from the prevailing tones in the interior and personal preferences.
The glow of different temperatures affects a person differently. Warm white tone helps to relax, neutral - to concentrate, cold energizes and energizes.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video describes the main factors in the choice of electrical equipment, the requirements for "water" lamps, and also gives recommendations on the zoning of space using lighting:
The competent choice of the lamp and the successful placement of light accents can visually increase the closed bathroom space. Equally important in arranging a comfortable and practical room will play the selection of brightness, color and shade of the lamp.