How to analyze the poem?
This article will give an approximate analysis planpoems (perception, theme, genre, composition, means of artistic expressiveness, etc.). You will learn to make a comparative analysis of the poems of one author or several. So, before you a kind of memo on the analysis of the poem - a small in volume artistic work, written in a poetic form and organized according to the laws of versification.
Plan for analyzing the poem
- Perception of the poem (describe the impression,which has produced a poem on you, what pictures of your imagination have arisen, how the mood permeates this work, whether the mood changes at some point and why, if this is so).
- The theme of the poem, which is often identicalits title: "Spring storm", "Stranger". The themes include: friendship, love, life and death, nature, poetry and its role in human life, the motherland, the people, the fate of the generation, the hero and the crowd. More local theme (microtheme, poetic plot): past, separation, wandering, date, etc. It is necessary to determine the type of lyrics: love, landscape, philosophical, religious, patriotic. It happens that within the limits of one poem you can see features of different types (the work of FI Tyutchev "What are you driving on the waters ..." refers to the landscape lyrics, and to the philosophical).
- Genre (lyric poem, elegy, message,sonnet, ode, fragment, etc.). Definitions of genres you will find in the "Dictionary of literary terms." Usually the genre is connected with the literary direction (in school classicism, romanticism, realism, sentimentalism, symbolism, futurism, acmeism are studied). Traditional for a certain direction forms (genres): classic ode, romantic elegy, sentimentalist elegy, etc.
- Composition - the construction of the poem. This concept includes a sequence of lines and stanzas, a composition of rhyme, a strophe, repetition of expressions and sound repetitions, repetitions of strings or stanzas, antitheses (contrasts).
- Means of artistic expressiveness. Paths: metaphors, epithets, personifications, comparisons, etc. Figures are syntactic constructions, speech turns that are used to enhance expressiveness: inversion, anaphora, repetition, union, graduation, oxymoron, etc. It is important not only to find trails and figures in text, but also to determine their role in the embodiment of the theme, idea and image.
- Sound recording (alliteration and assonance). It should be described how sounds help create an image. Alliteration is a repetition of homogeneous or identical consonants in a poem, which gives it a special sound expressiveness. Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds for the same purpose.
- Rhythm, size, rhyme. Dimensions of the poem: disyllabic and trisyllabic. Two-syllable sizes: trochee (smooth), iambic (energetic, strong). Three-syllabic dimensions: dactyl (monotonous rhythm), anapaest (very flexible, capable of transmitting various moods), amphibrachia (close to intonations of spoken language).
- Vocabulary. When parsing, it is necessary to explain the significance of all words that are difficult to understand, especially archaisms, historicisms. A word that seems quite understandable can acquire a new meaning in the context.
- Evaluation. Describe how the lyrical hero unfolds in this work, what are his inner world, feelings, experiences. Tell us how you were influenced by this poem.
Here is a short analysis of the poem.
Comparative analysis of poems
Knowing how to make a comparative analysis of poems is also important for schoolchildren and students studying Russian literature.
- the time of the creation of the poems, the life of the poet (poets) in this period, if this is important in your particular case;
- themes of works;
- comparison of images of lyrical characters;
- comparison of the emotional mood of poems (by means of which means a certain mood is created: trails, sound recordings, etc.);
- composition of works;
- the main idea of the poems;
- size, rhyme.
Now you know how to do a poem analysis. The above examples of plans are not firmly established, but they contain the most important points for the analysis of poetic texts.