CompostingApril 9, 2011
Preparation of compost from household organic waste allows not only to dispose of various food and not only waste, but also to get high-quality organic fertilizer. Such fertilizers are suitable for almost all plants, so homemade compost is often used in summer cottages and garden plots. Compost also helps to restore depleted soil and turns heavy clayey soil into fertile soil.
You can compost a lot: finely chopped branches and shoots of trees, mowed grass and fallen leaves, food waste (egg shells, fruit and vegetable waste, sleeping tea leaves and coffee grounds), sawdust, hay and straw. You can not use in the compost weeds with seeds or with a developed root system, plants affected by various diseases, stones, chemicals and construction waste.
It should be remembered that the smaller the size of composted waste, the sooner the process will take place, and fertilizers will be more efficient.
It is better to place the composting in a shaded area of the site, securely sheltered from strong winds and direct sunlight. The place at the same time should not be very secluded so that the composting plant is easily accessible. If desired, you can hide it with a hedge and an openwork fence. The best time to start composting is autumn. At this time, a sufficient amount of plant waste from the garden, mowed grass and fallen leaves is already accumulating.
In the area where the composting plant will be located, it is necessary to raise the ground level. For a composting plant measuring 1.5x1.5 meters, the ground should be raised by 15 cm. If the soil is clay, then sand drainage is needed, and vice versa, if the ground is sandy, then an insulating layer of clay is poured.
The site for the manufacture of fertilizers is divided into 3 parts, one of them is intended for the source material, and the other two will have offices for composting and transferring the finished fertilizer.
The simplest option is a compost in the form of a pyramid, bounded on the sides of the boards. You can also dig a hole about 40 cm deep or make a special compartment with compartments.To create it, you can use bricks, boards, or old metal containers, in the side walls of which holes are made to allow air to enter the center of the compost. The fact is that if no air enters the composting plant, its contents begin to rot. The composting is also adversely affected by too high a temperature; in case of strong heat, the composting is periodically watered. Water from the composting plant should be discharged; therefore, the lower layer is usually filled with large pieces of waste (for example, shredded wood).
Before laying the material, all prepared waste is thoroughly crushed and sorted. Lay the waste in layers, alternating high layers of waste (20-25 cm) with thin layers of animal manure, which saturates the compost with nitrogen and carbon. After laying all the layers of composting cover a thin layer of earth. Now you need to wait for the maturation of the compost, usually this process takes about 1 year. At intervals of 2–3 months, the layers of compost need to be mixed, since the temperature inside the compost is increased. The finished compost is scattered on the site and leveled with a rake; it is not necessary to dig it up