Causes of coma
Coma - from the Greek - "deep sleep." This is a serious and life-threatening condition of the human body, which is characterized by a deep depression of the central nervous system, a disturbance of vital functions, and metabolism. By duration, coma happens: small - measured by hours, and long-lasting - measured in 24 hours. Externally, coma is like a deep pathological sleep - lethargy, stupor. Unlike coma, a person in a lethargic sleep can leave it alone. Metabolic processes and functions with lethargy are sharply reduced. But in the bodies of irreversible changes do not arise, so a person can eventually return to a normal way of life. Consider the causes of coma.
With a stupor, the body becomes tight, reflexes are reduced, but consciousness is preserved. A stupor is considered a precomatous condition. It occurs as a result of:
- Primary, or direct, lesions of the central nervous system: cerebral hemorrhage, infectious, tumor, mechanical, toxic brain damage.
- Secondary, or mediated, toxic-infectious lesions of the brain. What is the result of the primary toxic-infectious process in any other organs, systems of the body.
Types of com
Depending on their origin, they distinguish exogenous and endogenous coma. In our time, more than 30 kinds of com. Consider the main types of com, their 5:
Coma of a neurological nature are due to the primary lesion of the central nervous system. There are such types:
- epileptic - occurs due to epilepsy;
- apoplexic - occurs with ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes;
- thermal - when the body is overcooled and overheated;
- traumatic - occurs when the brain is damaged;
- coma in the inflammatory processes of the brain, its membranes - encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis.
Coma of an endocrine nature. Occur due to metabolic disorders due to excess or lack of hormones. Coma, arising from an insufficient level of hormones:
- hypothyroid, with thyroid insufficiency;
- hyperglycaemic or diabetic;
- hypocorticoid, occurs due to insufficiency of the adrenal cortex.
Coma that arise because of excessive levels of hormones:
- hypoglycemic coma, causes - excess of insulin hormone;
- thyrotoxic arises in the course of the disease.
Comas of a metabolic nature are caused by the loss of water, electrolytes, energy substances. In this group, the following types of com:
- alimentary, in other words - a hungry coma;
- chlorhydropenic coma, occurs when persistent vomiting is present in patients and often with narrowing of the pyloric.
Coma of respiratory genesis is caused by the disruption of the gas exchange process. The most common coma in this group is hypoxic.
Toxic coma arise from exogenous or endogenous intoxication of the body.
- If the intoxication is endogenous, then, as a rule, uremic, hepatic, infectious coma develops.
- Exogenous intoxication can lead to alcoholic, medicamentous, organophosphorus and methanol coma.
Now you know what are the causes of coma.